Mathematics is a vast adventure in ideas; its history reflects some of the noblest thoughts of countless generations. Mathematics has been influenced by agriculture, commerce and manufacture, by warfare, engineering and philosophy, by physics and by astronomy.
The influence of hydrodynamics on function theory, and of surveying on geometry, of electromagnetism of differential equations, and of scholasticism on the calculus could only be indicated in a few sentence or perhaps a few words, yet an understanding of the course and contents of mathematics can only be reached, if all these determining factors are taken into consideration.
This book attempts to present a few of the recreational aspects of theory of numbers. One reason for the well-nigh irresistible appeal of number theory is the easily comprehended, yet puzzling nature of its problems. Another is that no long preliminary training is necessary; equipped with a knowledge of only high school mathematics, a beginner can easily master some of the more important fundamentals of the subject. “The most beautiful theorems of higher arithmetic have this peculiarity, that they are easily discovered by induction, while on the other hand their demonstrations lie in exceeding obscurity and can be ferred out only by very searching investigations”. This is the famous quote given by the mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss.
In general, the subject matter discussed in some part of the book is a little more difficult than other chapters and it is advisable therefore to read them in sequence. All articles in this book use well known notions of number theory. Many articles in this book deals mainly with the numbers. I titled this book in this way to show how many new and exciting things one can say more about this class of numbers.